Research On Open Innovation
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Open Innovation is everywhere. However, the precise scope of Open Innovation, its impact on daily life, and the policy measures needed to sustain it are still a matter of intense discussion and debate. ‘Research On Open Innovation’ compiles full length research papers by respected experts in the field. Together they help explain what an open innovation-based ecosystem could look like and how it could operate. The intent is to help you consider what aspects of Open Innovation could accelerate your own work in whatever field you reside. The underlying message is that there is a great deal of value in engaging with a community committed to openness.
Research on Open Innovation builds on the success of 'The First Openforum Academy Conference Proceedings' and 'Thoughts on Open Innovation' to provide additional context regarding academic research in this field. It acts as a "deeper dive" around key issues for policy-makers, business leaders and researchers to consider.
'Research on Open Innovation' was launched in September 2014 as part of OpenForum Academy's programme of Open Access research.
Once upon a time, the learned of the world willingly shared Great Ideas and discoveries among themselves, both nationally in scientific societies, and internationally through letters, often composed in Latin, the lingua franca of the recently enlightened Europe of that time. The resulting advancement in a broad range of scientific disciplines was prodigious, reaping enormous benefits we still enjoy today... <Download this chapter as a PDF file>
- Architecting the Future of Research Communication: Building the Models and Analytics for an Open Access Future by Cameron Neylon
We live in an exciting time. There are huge opportunities starting to open up for more effective research communication. The massive progress towards Open Access is a core part of this. At the same time, the tools we have to display, manipulate, and interact with this content have become not just incredibly powerful, but easier to use. And as the web in general provides new kinds of services, new ways of communicating, telling stories, and manipulating data there is a profound cultural shift occurring as our expectations of what should be possible, indeed what should be easy, grow... <Download this chapter as a PDF file>
- Facilitating Innovation: The Role Of Standards And Openness In The Broader Innovation Ecosystem by Jochen Friedrich
Standards can play a key role in facilitating innovation. This is being taken into consideration by companies in their business strategies as well as by governments regarding their innovation strategies. Within Europe, detailed analysis has been taken regarding the complexities of the relationship between standardisation and innovation. Legal changes have been made adapting the European standardisation system to global realities in order to increase the potential in Europe for driving innovation via the powerful tool of standardisation. What is important is that the different roles which standards play in this context are well analysed and understood. Building on the boost of innovation which the internet and the world wide web produced, there is a huge potential for innovative technologies in the integration of technologies, in complex systems, in the areas that are usually tagged as “smart domains”. Like with the internet and the web, standards are a critical element in these context. And flexibility and differentiated action will be required for maximising the desired effects of innovation strategies and policies... <Download this chapter as a PDF file>
- Standards And Sustainable Infrastructures: Matching Compatibility Strategies With System Flexibility Objectives by Tineke M. Egyedi
This paper explores the counter-intuitive assumption that standards increase system flexibility. To what degree and in what manner can standards—and other strategies that create technical compatibility—enhance system flexibility? It focuses on information networks of which the life cycle is sometimes needlessly short. Different objectives of system flexibility can be discerned (e.g., exchangeability and longevity). I examine to what degree specific compatibility strategies (i.e., gateway technologies, standardisation, modularity and interactive compatibility) can be matched with distinct flexibility objectives... <Download this chapter as a PDF file>
- Four Dimensions Affecting Policy Resistance In It Procurement by Mathieu Paapst
The Dutch strategic IT plan “Netherlands Open in Connection” intends to give a direction for public sector buyers to adopt a positive policy and strategy towards open standards, Open Source Software and the use of ODF. This article describes the support and resistance of the policy by government buyers found after researching the documents of 80 tenders, and after interviewing 15 government buyers. In this article the awareness knowledge threshold and four dimensions are described that together can function as an interpretative framework helping policy makers understand why an IT-related policy is supported or resisted. The four dimensions in the proposed framework establish the relative advantage that will influence the degree of willingness to adopt and use a new strategic IT policy. When there is a negative influence within a dimension the policy maker should counterbalance that influence by using a positive instrument within that same dimension... <Download this chapter as a PDF file>
- E-Governance in Public Sector ICT Procurement: What is Shaping Practice in Sweden? by Björn Lundell
Is it reasonable to require any person or organisation to purchase specific software in order to be able to communicate with a governmental organisation? This question is at the heart of an ongoing debate in many countries within the EU, because of its implications for accessibility, transparency, democracy, and fairness in procurement and markets. In this paper we consider the inability of many Swedish governmental organisations to communicate in open formats, and report on an investigation into policy formulation which has led to this situation in one sector – local government. We conducted a survey of all municipalities in Sweden. The final response rate was 99%, after 4 months and a maximum of 7 reminders. We find that there is little or no evidence of consideration given to document formats when procuring software... <Download this chapter as a PDF file>
- FOSS Governance And Collaboration: From A Good Idea To Coherent Market Approach by Shane Coughlan
Free and Open Source Software (sometimes called Open Source or FLOSS, and referred to in this paper by the commonly used term FOSS) is an approach to software that emphasises the freedoms provided to end users. Originally formulated in 1983 by a computer scientist concerned with access to technology, it has become a central component of mainstream IT. The popularity of FOSS has produced a wealth of related terminology and perspectives which occasionally lead to confusion about what it actually is and what are the best ways to engage with the field. This paper will address such confusion by providing a clear overview of FOSS, how it works, and why it is successful. It will go back to first principles in defining FOSS, explaining the concept of licensing that underpins it, and examining how this paradigm facilitates multiple development and business models... <Download this chapter as a PDF file>
When developing information systems, whether they be standalone business process support programs for single machines or internet-spanning user-generated content distribution mechanisms, various choices that need to be made in the specification, design and implementation of that system can be characterised as a choice about openness or closure. Sometimes these choices are binary in nature (open or closed, with no in- between), whereas at others it’s the level of open-ness that’s the question, with a setting available somewhere between fully open and fully closed. In this paper I discuss the implications of various types of choice for various business scenarios, and their relation to general principles of information ethics, such as those espoused by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and the British Computer Society (BCS) in their relevant codes of ethics... <Download this chapter as a PDF file>
- Blurring the Line between Creator and Consumer by Andrew Katz
We are reaching the end of a great historical experiment. Printing (starting with Gutenberg-style presses, and leading to huge industrial Heidelberg printing machines), radio broadcasting, records (shellac 78s and vinyl), CDs, cinema, television, DVDs and Blu-Rays were the technological backdrop for this experiment. All are (or were) media based on the principle of one-to-many distribution. To understand how this experiment was initiated, and how it is reaching its end, we need to understand a little of the nature of the businesses involved in these activities, and how the law enabled them to attain, and retain, that nature... <Download this chapter as a PDF file>
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